Meander Travel - Kusadasi Meander Travel - Kusadasi
 

   Facts of Turkey

INTRODUCTION
Background Present-day Turkey was created in 1923 from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Soon thereafter, the country instituted secular laws to replace traditional religious fiats. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in 1952 it became a member of NATO
GEOGRAPHY
Location Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Coordinates 39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references Middle East
Area Total: 783,562 sq km
Water: 13,930 sq km
Land: 769,632 sq km
Area-comparative Slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries Total: 2,648 km
Border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline 7,200 km
Maritime claims Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climate Temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain High central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166
Natural resources Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use Arable land: 29.81%
Permanent crops: 3.39%
Other: 66.8% (2005)
Irrigated land 52,150 sq km (2008 est.)
Total renewable water
resources
234 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal
(domestic / industrial /
agricultural)
Total: 39.78 cu km/yr (15%/11%/74%)
Per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)
Natural hazards Severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
Environment - current
issues
Water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment international
agreements
Party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note Strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
PEOPLE
Nationality Noun: Turk(s)
Adjective: Turkish
Language Turkish and other minority languages
Religions Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Population 79,749,461 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure 0-14 years: 26.6% (male 10,707,793/female 10,226,999)
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 26,741,332/female 26,162,757)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 2,259,422/female 2,687,245) (2011 est.)
Median age Total: 28.5 years
Male: 28.1 years
Female: 28.8 years (2011 est.)
Population growth rate 1.197% (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 98
Birth rate 17.58 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107
Death rate 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 160
Net migration rate 0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 63
Urbanization Urban population: 70% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities-population Istanbul 10.378 million; ANKARA (capital) 3.846 million; Izmir 2.679 million; Bursa 1.559 million; Adana 1.339 million (2009)
Sex ratio At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate 23 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 123
Infant mortality rate Total: 23.07 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 84
Male: 24.13 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 21.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth Total population: 72.77 years
Country comparison to the world: 124
Male: 70.86 years
Female: 74.78 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate 2.13 children born/woman (2012 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 110
Health expenditures 6.7% of GDP (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 88
Physicians density 1.451 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density 2.41 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source Improved
Urban: 100% of population
Rural: 96% of population
Total: 99% of population

Unimproved
Urban: 0% of population
Rural: 4% of population
Total: 1% of population (2008)

Sanitation facility access Improved
urban: 97% of population
rural: 75% of population
total: 90% of population

Unimproved
Urban: 3% of population
Rural: 25% of population
Total: 10% of population (2008)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate Less than 0.1%; less than 0.1% note - no country Specific models provided (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 161
HIV/AIDS - people living
with HIV/AIDS
4,600 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 120
HIV/AIDS - deaths Fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 102
Obesity - adult prevalence rate 16.1% (2007)
Country comparison to the world: 30
Children under the age of
5 years underweight
3.5% (2004)
Country comparison to the world: 99
Education expenditures 2.9% of GDP (2006)
Country comparison to the world: 136
Literacy Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 87.4%
Male: 95.3%
Female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy
(primary to tertiary
education)
Total: 12 years
Male: 12 years
Female: 11 years (2008)
Unemployment, youth
ages 15-24
Total: 25.3%
Country comparison to the world: 28
Male: 25.4%
Female: 25.1% (2009)
GOVERNMENT
Country name Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkiye
Government type Republican parliamentary democracy
Capital Name: Ankara
Geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Monday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions 81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution 7 November 1982; amended several times; note - amendment passed by referendum 21 October 2007 concerning presidential elections
Legal system Civil law system based on various European legal systems notably the Swiss civil code; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
International law
organization
participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch Chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)

Head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003)

Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website)

Elections: President elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament

Election results: on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339

Note: In October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
Legislative branch Unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held on 12 June 2011 (next to be held by June 2015)
Election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 49.8%, CHP 25.9%, MHP 13%, independents 6.6%, other 4.7%; seats by party - AKP 326, CHP 135, MHP 53, independents 36; note - only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Judicial branch Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and
leaders
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]; Democratic Party or DP [Namik Kemal ZEYBEK]; Equality and Democracy Party or EDP [Ziva HALIS]; Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Yalcin TOPCU]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]; People's Voice Party or HSP [Numan KURTULMUS]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]; Turkey Party or TP [Abdullatif SENER]

Note: The parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Political pressure
groups and leaders
Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL]; Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut ARSLAN]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Bendevi PALANDOKEN]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Umit BOYNER]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization
participation
ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, D-8, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (candidate country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US Chief of mission: Ambassador Namik TAN
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
Fax: [1] (202) 612-6744
Consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US Chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.
Embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
Mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
Telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
Fax: [90] (312) 467-0019
Consulate(s) general: Istanbul
Consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description Red with a vertical white crescent moon (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening; the flag colors and designs closely resemble those on the banner of Ottoman Empire, which preceded modern-day Turkey; the crescent moon and star serve as insignia for the Turks, as well as being traditional symbols of Islam; according to legend, the flag represents the reflection of the moon and a star in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors
National anthem Name: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March)
lyrics/music: Mehmet Akif ERSOY/Zeki UNGOR
note:lyrics adopted 1921, music adopted 1932; the anthem's original music was adopted in 1924; a new composition was agreed upon in 1932
ECONOMY
Economy - overview Turkey's largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries, are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey's export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey's dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis in 2001, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. The reforms strengthened the country's economic fundamentals and ushered in an era of strong growth - averaging more than 6% annually until 2008. Global economic conditions and tighter fiscal policy caused GDP to contract in 2009, but Turkey's well-regulated financial markets and banking system helped the country weather the global financial crisis and GDP rebounded strongly to 8.2% in 2010, as exports returned to normal levels following the recession. Turkey's public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen to roughly 40%. Continued strong growth has pushed inflation to the 8% level, however, and worsened an already high current account deficit. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large trade deficit. The stock value of FDI stood at $99 billion at year-end 2011. Inflows have slowed considerably in light of continuing economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey's FDI. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Turkey's attractiveness to foreign investors. However, Turkey's relatively high current account deficit, uncertainty related to monetary policy-making, and political turmoil within Turkey's neighborhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
GDP (purchasing power
parity)
$1.026 trillion (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 17
$981.2 billion (2010 est.)
$906.9 billion (2009 est.)
Note: Data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange
rate)
$763.1 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 84
8.2% (2010 est.)
-4.7% (2009 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP) $14,600 (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 86
$13,800 (2010 est.)
$12,900 (2009 est.)
Note: Data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP - composition by
sector
Agriculture: 9.2%
Industry: 26.9%
Services: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Labor force 27.43 million
Country comparison to the world: 23
Note: About 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2011 est.)
Labor force - by
occupation
Agriculture: 25.5%
Industry: 26.2%
Services: 48.4% (2010)
Unemployment rate 10.3% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 115
12% (2010 est.)
Note: Underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008
Population below
poverty line
16.9% (2010)
Household income or
consumption by
percentage share
Lowest 10%: 2.1%
Highest 10%: 30.3% (2008)
Distribution of family
income - Gini index
40.2 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 61
43.6 (2003)
Investment (gross fixed) 21.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 99
Budget Revenues: $176.8 billion
Expenditures: $189.2 billion (2011 est.)
Taxes and other
revenues
23.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 131
Budget surplus (+) or
deficit (-)
-1.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 69
Public debt 42.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 73
43% of GDP (2010 est.)

Note: Data cover central government debt, and excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions.
Inflation rate (consumer
prices)
7.8% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 171
8.6% (2010 est.)
Central bank discount
rate
5.25% (31 December 2011)
Country comparison to the world: 12
15% (22 December 2009)
Commercial bank prime
lending rate
16% (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22
19% (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of narrow money $61.83 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 43
$58.27 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of broad money $400.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
$349.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit $573.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
$496 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Market value of publicly
traded shares:
$306.7 billion (31 December 2010)
Country comparison to the world: 29
$225.7 billion (31 December 2009)
$117.9 billion (31 December 2008)
Agriculture - products Tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulses, citrus; livestock
Industries Textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production
growth rate
8.5% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20
Electricity - production 185.2 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21
Electricity-consumption 161 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21
Electricity - exports 1.55 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports 737 million kWh (2009 est.)
Oil - production 55,110 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 60
Oil - consumption 646,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
Oil - exports 68,450 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 74
Oil - imports 581,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 20
Oil - proved reserves 270.4 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 58
Natural gas-production 674 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66
Natural gas - consumption 38.12 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25
Natural gas - exports 649 million cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 40
Natural gas - imports 38.04 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 10
Natural gas - proved
reserves
6.173 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 87
Current account balance -$71.94 billion (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 195
-$47.74 billion (2010 est.)
Exports $133 billion (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 33
$120.9 billion (2010 est.)
Exports - commodities Apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners Germany 10.1%, UK 6.4%, Italy 5.7%, France 5.3%, Iraq 5.3%, Russia 4.1% (2010)
Imports $212.2 billion (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 24
$177.3 billion (2010 est.)
Imports - commodities Machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners Russia 11.6%, Germany 9.5%, China 9.3%, US 6.6%, Italy 5.5%, France 4.4%, Iran 4.1% (2010)
Reserves of foreign
exchange and gold
$96.05 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 23
$86.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Debt - external $313.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28
$290.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign
investment - at home
$98.98 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36
$86.98 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of direct foreign
investment - abroad
$98.98 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 36
$86.98 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates Turkish liras (TRY) per US dollar -
1.668 (2011 est.)
1.5028 (2010 est.)
1.55 (2009)
1.3179 (2008)
1.319 (2007)
Fiscal year Calendar year
COMMUNICATIONS
Telephones - main
lines in use
16.202 million (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 19
Telephones - mobile
cellular
61.77 million (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 21
Telephone system General assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular services

Domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 100 telephones per 100 persons

International: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)

Broadcast media Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately-owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions available; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009)
Internet country code .tr
Internet hosts 3.625 million (2011)
Country comparison to the world: 28
Internet users 27.233 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 15
TRANSPORTATION
Airports 99 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 59
Airports - with paved
runways
Total: 88
Over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 16
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved
runways
Total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)
Heliports 20 (2010)
Pipelines Gas 10,706 km; oil 3,636 km (2010)
Railways Total: 8,699 km
Country comparison to the world: 23
Standard gauge: 8,699 km 1.435-m gauge (1,928 km Electrified) (2010)
Roadways Total: 352,046 km
Country comparison to the world: 19
Paved: 313,151 km (includes 2,010 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 38,895 km (2008)
Waterways 1,200 km (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 60
Merchant marine Total: 629
Country comparison to the world: 18
By type: bulk carrier 102, cargo 281, chemical tanker 80, container 42, liquefied gas 6, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 60, petroleum tanker 25, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 29, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Italy 1)
Registered in other countries: 645 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Azerbaijan 1, Bahamas 3, Barbados 1, Belize 16, Brazil 1, Cambodia 15, Comoros 8, Cook Islands 4, Curacao 5, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Georgia 14, Italy 4, Kazakhstan 1, Liberia 16, Malta 233, Marshall Islands 70, Moldova 18, Panama 62, Russia 101, Saint Kitts and Nevis 18, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 9, Slovakia 1, Tanzania 13, Togo 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 3) (2011)
Ports and terminals Aliaga, Diliskelesi, Eregli, Izmir, Izmit (Kocaeli), Mercin (Icel), Limani, Yarimca
MILITARY
Military branches Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2010)
Military service age and
obligation
19-41 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 15 months conscript obligation for non-university graduates, 6-12 months for university graduates; Turkey is trying to reduce dependency on conscription, as of 2004, 75% of soldiers were conscripts; women serve in the Turkish Armed Forces only as officers; reserve obligation to age 41; under a law passed in November 2011, men aged 30 and older who have worked 3 years in foreign countries may pay $16,200 in lieu of mandatory military service (2011)
Manpower available for
military service
Males age 16-49: 21,079,077
Females age 16-49: 20,558,696 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military
service
Males age 16-49: 17,664,510
Females age 16-49: 17,340,816 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching
militarily significant age
annually
Male: 700,079
Female: 670,328 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures 5.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14

 

 
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