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   Archeological Sites in Samos Island

ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM
It is hosed in two buildings; old and modern building. The OLD building, built from carved stones is next to the Town Hall building. At the entrance there are two columns of Ionic style and a marble sarcophagus of the Hellenistic Age. There you can see sculptures and other exhibits of the classical antiquity, huge statues of the Hellenistic period, relief of suppers of the dead as well as votive offerings.

There are also exhibits of prehistoric and geometric pottery and rare wooden objectives of the 8th and 6th century B.C. A rich collection of cooper and ceramic objectives of the geometric, archaic, Roman period as well as ivory objects of 8-6 century can be admired here. In the NEW building, the huge statue of Kouros and a sculpture by Samios Genelaos (6th century B.C.) devoted to the goddess Hera are exhibited here. This sculpture consists six figures only three of which are saved today.

ECCLESIASTICAL - BYZANTINE MUSEUM
In this museum which is in the Cathedral building, a lot of icons, sacerdotal vestments, manuscripts have been gathered and exhibited here. Also the mantle of Patriarch Gregorios 5th, and the sleeves of the metropolitan Bishop of Smirni, Chrysostomos who was a national martyr. There are also crosses carved in wood, sacred utensils made of silver and gold, old gospels and a lot of valuable objects of great historic value.

PALEONTOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF MYTILINI
It is in the Municipality building. Its exhibitions are of great paleontological value. Bones of prehistoric vertebrate animals, phinos, Mediterranean horses, hippos and other horned animals. Articulation joints of Smotheria (wild beats of Samos), shailder blades, teeth and various bones of prehistoric thinos, dinosaurs, hyenas and reptile eggs. The fossil brain of a small horse aged 13 million years is the most most valuable exhibit of the museum.

EUPALINUS TUNNEL OF PYTHAGORION
A tunnel with two entrances, dug in the middle of the mountain, used to be the water pipe by which the town was supplied with water. This is one of the Polycratian constructions, constructed by Eupalinus, an engineer from Megara. The length of the tunnel is 1.038 m. The interior height is the same with the average human height and in the middle of the floor clay pipes were placed. Through this tunnel, water was carried to Polycrate's town. It is an aqueduct, a masterpiece of engineering device, the most important of the antique years. It was constructed with primitive tools without any scientific equipment, thing which astonishes the visitors.

THE MUSEUM OF PYTHAGORION
It is in the Town Hall building. Some of the exhibits are of series of archaic votive offering grave columns (6th century B.C.) Among them is the Diagoras column, various parts of grave reliefs, headless statues and so on. There is also a great number of capitals and statues of Roman emperors. (Augustus, Claudius, Trajanus)

ANCIENT THEATRE
Beneath the monastery of Spiliani there is the ancient theater. Unfortunately it is destroyed. The stage and only one tier of seats are saved today. It must have been quite big. Nowadays ancient drama performances are held.

THE CASTLE OF LOGOTHETIS
Next to the church of Metamorphosis rises this historic castle, built on the ruins of the former Venetian one. This castle was a Fort of 400m. and used to e a stronghold of the defending Samians in 1824.

THE WALLS
The Polycratian walls had length of 6.220 m. Today many parts of the walls are very well preserved. There were 35 forts, 12 gates and exits.

HERAION
7 km from Pythagorion, was the greatest Sanctuary of Hera in the ancient times. Anyone could find refuge there. It was the temple of goddess Hera, has a length of 108.75 m, width 54.68 m. and height 25 m. It was peripheral with 133 columns only me of which is still standing. One legend says that it was built by the nymphs and another that it was built by the Argonaut hero Ancaios, when he had returned from the Arganautic Expedition. In ancient times the Goddess Hera was celebrated twice a year. The first celebration was called "Heraia" dedicated to her birth and the second "Tonea" dedicated to the miracle she had performed.

IERA ODOS (The Sacred Way)
The sacred way had length of 4.880 m. and used to connect the ancient town to Heraion. It was constructed in the 7th century B.C. and it had in length about 2000 statues, monuments, temples and grave on both sides.

 

 
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