Nabatean - Arabs who lived south and east of Israel and significantly impacted New Testament events. A highly advanced civilization that developed the ability to farm wilderness areas. Controlled the spice trade and trade routes that crossed Israel from Arabia.
Nazarite - Individual who showed his devotion to God by choosing to separate himself from other people through his lifestyle. He made a three-part vow: to never cut his hair or beard, to abstain from any grape product, and to avoid contact with anything dead. Samson was a Nazirite.
Near East - Ancient term referring to the area of Israel and the countries surrounding it, including Egypt and Babylonia.
Necropolis - Burial ground.
Negev - Word means "dry" or "parched". Desert on the southern edge of Israel, south of the Judea Mountains. The Israelites wandered here during their 40 years in the wilderness. Home of Jacob, father of the 12 tribes, and many desert nomads and spice traders. Elijah ran Queen Jezebel into the Negev.
Nehemiah - A Hebrew leader of the 5th century BC.
Neokoros - Title borne by a city which possessed a temple dedicated to the imperial cult.
Neptune - Roman god of the sea and earthquakes. Brother of Zeus and Hades.
New City - During and after Jesus' time, the city expanded north, and many wealthy people built large villas in this new area of Jerusalem. Herod Agrippa walled it about thirty or more years after Jesus' crucifixion.
Nike - Greek god of victory, pictured with a wreath. Granddaughter of Oceanus, daughter of Styx.
Northern kingdom - When Israel divided after Solomon's death (926 BC), the northern 10 tribes under Jeroboam became the northern kingdom, or Israel. The Assyrians destroyed them in 722 BC.
North Wall - The Antonia fortress was located here. Built by Herod the Great, this fortress guarded the northern side of Jerusalem and held Roman troops during Jesus' time who watched the temple activities. St. Paul was probably brought to the Antonia after his arrest and defended himself on the stairs that apparently led to the fortress. The temple platform's extension to the west required enormous retaining walls on the south and west. Some of the rocks used in the wall weighed more than five hundred tons each. The finished platform was divided into courts, which became increasingly more sacred the closer they were to the temple.
Nymphaeum - "Temple of Nymphs"; an ornamental fountain with statues.